Republic Day in Mongolia is celebrated annually on November 26 to commemorate the establishment of the People’s Republic of Mongolia in 1924. Also known as Mongolia Proclamation Day, this day is a public holiday in Mongolia.
November 26, 1924, was the day when Mongolia declared itself as an independent nation with the adoption of its first constitution. The Mongolian People’s Republic (MPR), a communist state, under the rule of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP), lasted until 1990.
|Mongolia Republic Day
|Also known as Proclamation Day, this day commemorates the proclamation of the Mongolian People’s Republic in 1924.
Mongolia proclaimed itself as Republic
Mongolia Proclamation Day
Mongolia Republic Day History: How Did Mongolia Became A Republic?
The foundation of Republic Day goes back to 1911 when the Chinese Qing Dynasty fell and Mongolia, which had been ruled by it, declared its independence (which is today celebrated annually on December 29 as Mongolia Restoration of Independence Day.
When the last Dynasty of China, the Qing Dynasty, fell in 1911, Bogd Khaan, the spiritual ruler, declared Mongolia’s independence. This, however, wasn’t recognized by the new Chinese government.
After many failed endeavors to declare and battle for Mongolian independence, Mongolia turned to Russia for help. In 1915, the Khyagta talks occurred between China, Russia, and Mongolia with the end goal to examine the political status of Mongolia. The Khyagta talks resulted in the decision to split Outer and Inner Mongolia and give them limited self-governance under Chinese rule.
In 1919, with the distraction of the Russian revolution (Russia was busy with a civil war), the Chinese came back to Mongolia and forcefully took control of the capital city. The Mongolian government was forced to sign a document that ended their ‘independent’ status. Seeing this, Mongolia asked the Russian Bolsheviks for help. Soviet Russian forces at that point invaded to throw out the Chinese forces in 1920 and did so.
The Outer Mongolian Revolution occurred in 1921, with the help of Soviet troops to overtake the capital city, Ulaanbaatar (formerly known as Niislel Khuree), from the Chinese.
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With the end goal to wipe out any future Chinese risk from the Russian border, it was decided to introduce an independent communist Mongolian government on 11th July 1921. This is currently celebrated as the Naadam Festival in Mongolia. On July 11, 1921, the People’s Government of Mongolia was proclaimed with China’s defeat.
From 1921 until 1924, Mongolia worked to set up a new government and finalized this with its constitution on November 26, 1924. The constitution created the Mongolian People’s Republic. November 26 is now celebrated as Mongolia Republic Day!
*Although, 26th November is the day when Mongolia turned into an officially communist country, it’s still celebrated today as the day Mongolia achieved its independence once and for all!
Dates of Republic Day in Mongolia
|Republic Day Anniversary