January

Haitian Independence Day | History, Facts, & Celebration

National Day Of Haitian

Happy Haitian Independence Day – Independence Day in Haiti is celebrated every year on January 1, the same day as New Year’s Day. Haiti Independence Day is an important holiday and the most important event in history as it marks Haiti’s independence from the French colonial empire.

Explored by Columbus on Dec. 6, 1492, Haiti’s indigenous Arawak fell prey into Spanish rule. Back in 1697, Haiti became the French colony of Saint-Dominique, that turned into a top sugar-cane producer influenced by slaves. In 1791, an insurrection erupted among the slave population of 480,000, leading to a declaration of independence by Pierre-Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture in 1801.Napoleon Bonaparte dominated the independence movements, but it finally succeeded in 1804 under Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who gave the new state the Arawak name Haiti. It absolutely had been the entire world’s first black republic.

This Day (Tuesday, January 01, 2019) in Haiti marks: Haitian Independence Day – Independence Day of Haiti – Haiti Independence Day

On January 1, 1804, Haiti made history by being the first Black Country to gain its independence – which is today celebrated as Haitian Independence Day.

National Day Of Haitian

The Haitian war for independence is surely recalled at the time of year, alongside the new era it started off in the launch of a fresh calendar year. Most Haitians wear new clothes, visit friends and family, and exchange presents. They also enroll in independence day parades, for example, one in Port-Au-Prince, visit the National Palace, sing their national anthem and wave their country’s flag, even see fireworks displays or set their very own fireworks, and even dance for pleasure at the streets.

About Haiti: Haiti is at the western one-third of the island of Hispaniola among the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. This small nation is located south of the island of Cuba and is west of the Dominican Republic. The land is mountainous. The people in north possess a Creole accent and are influenced by their Dominican Republic neighbors. The population is 95% black and 5% white.

Haitians show up at voodoo ceremonies along with folk dances. Carnival and New Year’s Day are the most important holidays for Haitians. The Haitian diet regime program plan is composed of fruits and vegetables, in addition to some spicy meat dishes.

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A Short Summary Of Haiti: Haitian Revolution & Haitian Independence

How Haiti gained independence? This short summary of Haiti will give you an overall view of Haiti’s history, colonization in Haiti, how did Haiti become independent, and a brief detail about Haitian IndependenceDay.

As ancient as 2,600 BC, settlers in SouthAmerica came to modern-day Haiti by means of handmade boats. Centuries after, approximately 250 BC, the Arawak men, and women are considered to have settled, though recordings of the time in history are rather sparse. Along with the Arawaks, the Taíno inhabitants eventually occupied this region, also, inhabiting Haiti for centuries.

It was only in 1492 that European explorers descended on this region, together with Christopher Columbus setting foot Haiti’s shores in December of the year. Columbus landed in Mole Saint-Nicolas and dubbed the island La Española, although the title was later Anglicized into Hispaniola. Today, Hispaniola nevertheless indicates the island as a whole, although it’s since been split into two distinct nations – Haiti to the west, along with the Dominican Republic to the east.

Even though the Spanish originally claimed possession over the whole island, they mostly built settlements around the eastern side. The western part of Hispaniola was left mostly empty until the17th century when the French decided to settle here. They called the colonySaint-Domingue.

Haiti Flag wooden sign with road background

From the 18th century, Saint-Domingue (Haiti) became very wealthy by exporting sugar, cotton, coffee, indigo, and cocoa. Regrettably, but this prosperity came at an affordable cost. Slaves were brought to work on those lands, suffering dreadful treatment from their colonial masters. In August of 1791, those slaves began a rebellion, which subsequently resulted in a war which ravaged the colony. This war raged on till 1794 when France finally made a decision to end slavery there.

Among the leaders within this slave rebellion was a man by the name of Toussaint L’Ouverture. When the war came to a close, Toussaint joined the French army, who were then fighting Spain contrary to their claim to the southern two-thirds of Hispaniola. In 1797, Toussaint was made commander of the French military, and from 1801 that he had been in charge of the whole island. Not merely did he announce all slaves free, but he made himself head of this new government and released a brand-new constitution.

Extremely angry with Toussaint’s action, theFrench employed a trick to arrest him, however, the fight was far from over. Another former slave, Jean-Jacques Dessalines continued the battle against theFrench, and on January 1, 1804, the island formally gained its own independence. It had been renamed Haiti, also is known as the second oldest independent state in the Western Hemisphere (after the United States). Now, Haiti celebrates its Independence Day on January 1st, complete with parades, fireworks, and dance in town.

Haiti’s Road To Independence: How did Haiti gain its independence?

Haiti’s heritage is long and diverse, so much may be shared regarding the trials and triumphs of the island country. Here is a detailed rundown of everything you want to understand about Haiti’s history, starting with colonization and finish with the present moment.

 

Early History of Haiti: Who were the original inhabitants of the Caribbean?

Haiti Independence Day Celebration Balloons. Flying Rubber Celebration Balloons in Colors of the Haiti National Flag. Happy Haiti Day Celebration Balloons

In the time of European conquest, the island of Hispaniola, where Haiti occupies the western three-eighths, was among several Caribbean islands occupied from the Taíno Native Americans, speakers of the Arawakan language named Taino. The Taíno title for the island has been Haiti. The folks had migrated over centuries in the Carribean islands from South America. Genetic studies reveal they were associated with the Yanomami of the Amazon Basin. They originated from South and Central America. After visiting Caribbean islands, in the 15th century, the Taíno were pushed to the northeast Caribbean islands from the Caribs.

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The island of Haiti was split among fiveCaciquats: the Magua in the northeast, the Marien from the northwest, the Xaragua in the southwest, the Maguana at the central region of Cibao and the Higuey from the southeast. The caciquedoms have been also tributary kingdoms, together with payment composed of harvests.

Taíno cultural artifacts include cave paintings in many places in the country. All these have become symbols of Haiti and tourist attractions. Present-day Léogane began as a French colonial city in the southwest, is with the former capital of this caciquedom of Xaragua.

Colonization in Haiti – Spanish Rule in Haiti (1492–1625)

Haitian Independence Fact: The colonization of Haiti begins with Spanish rule. Haiti remained under Spanish rule for 133 years!

Haiti flag. Haitian flag hanging on a pole in front of the house. National flag waving on a home displaying on a pole on a front door of a building

Navigator Christopher Columbus settled in Haiti about 5 December 1492, in a region that he named Môle-Saint-Nicolas, and claimed the island to the Crown of Castile. A few days later, his ship Santa Maria ran close to the site of Cap-Haïtien. Columbus left 39 men on the island, that set the settlement of La Navidad. The sailors transported Eurasian contagious diseases. The natives lacked resistance to those new diseases and died in huge numbers in epidemics. The very first recorded smallpox outbreak in the Americas erupted on Hispaniola in 1507.

The Spanish passed the Laws of Burgos, 1512-13, which prohibited the maltreatment of natives, supported their conversion to Catholicism and gave a legal framework to encomiendas. The natives were brought to these sites to work in particular plantations or industries.

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Being a gateway into the Caribbean, Hispaniola turned into a sanctuary for pirates throughout the early colonial period. The western region of the island has been settled by French buccaneers. Among them had been Bertrand d’Ogeron, who succeeded in developing tobacco. He also recruited lots of French families from Martinique and Guadeloupe. European countries were still competing for control in the New World, in the Caribbean as well as in North America. France and Spain settled their hostilities around the island by way of this Treaty of Ryswick of  1697 and split Hispaniola between them.

Colonization in Haiti – French Rule in Haiti (1625–1804)

HaitianIndependence Fact: After remaining a colony of Spain, Haiti became a colony ofFrance in 1625. Haiti remained under French rule for 179 years!

France acquired the western-third and then named it Saint Domingue, the French equivalent of Santo Domingo, the Spanish colony of Hispaniola and the name of its own patron saint, Saint Dominic.

Haiti Independence Day Patriotic Design. Balloons in Haitian National Colors

The French-enacted Code Noir (“Black Code”), prepared by Jean Baptiste Colbert and ratified by Louis XIV, had set rules on slave treatment and permissible freedoms. Saint Domingue was clarified as probably perhaps one of the very most cruelly efficient slave colonies; one-third of recently imported Africans died within a few years. Lots of slaves died from diseases like smallpox and typhoid fever. They’d low birth rates, and there’s proof that a number of women aborted fetuses as opposed to giving birth to kids over the bonds of slavery.

To grow it in sugar cane plantations, the most French imported thousands of slaves from Africa. Sugar has been a booming product harvest through the duration of the 18th century. From 1789, somewhere around 40,000 whit colonists lived in Saint Domingue. In comparison, by 1763the white population of French Canada, a huge land, had numbered 65,000. The whites had been significantly outnumbered from the tens of thousands of black slaves they’d imported from Africa to operate in their lands, that were chiefly committed for the creation of sugar cane. At the north of this island, slaves could maintain connections into African cultures, language, and religion; these connections were always being revived by newly imported Africans. Blacks outnumbered whites by ten to one!

Since in its own Louisiana colony, the French colonial government granted legal rights to free people of color: the mixed-race descendants of European men colonists and African female slaves (and after that mixed-race ladies ). With the years, a lot was released out of captivity. They created a different social class. White French Creole fathers usually sent their mixed-race sons to France for their education. A few guys of color were permitted into the armed forces. Some of the free men and women of color live dat the south of this island, in close proximity to port au prince, also most intermarried within their community. They worked as artisans and tradesmen and started to have their own property. Some became slaveholders. The free people of color petitioned the French colonial government to enlarge their rights.

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Slaves that made it to Haiti via the trans-Atlantic journey and slaves born in Haiti had been documented in Haiti’sarchives and moved to France’s Ministry of Defense as well as the Ministry of the Foreign Affairs. At the Time of 2015, these records come from The NationalArchives of France. According to this 1788 Census, Haiti’s inhabitants contained 25,000 Europeans, 22,000 free coloreds and 700,000 African African slaves.

Haitian Revolution (1791–1804): Here’s how did Haiti become independent

Haitian Independence Fact: The Haitian Revolution, which occurred between 1791-1804, is important because Haiti is the only country where slave freedom was obtained by force and marks the only successful slave revolt in modern times. A ragtag force of slaves managed to unite Haiti, conquer Europe’s strongest military and become the first nation in Latin America to get independence, next only to the USA from the Americas as a whole. How did Haiti become independent – credit goes to the Haitian Revolution!

The Haitian Revolution has been explained as the biggest & most prosperous slave rebellion from the Western Hemisphere. It’s unquestionably the sole servile uprising that resulted in the creation of an independent state, Haiti. Slaves pioneered the rebellion in 1791 and from1803 they’d triumphed in finishing not just slavery but French control across the colony. The Haitian Revolution, nevertheless, was far more elaborate, which consists of numerous revolutions moving simultaneously. All these revolutions had been determined from the French Revolution of 1789, that could have come to reflect a new concept of human rights, universal citizenship, and involvement in the government.

In the 18th century, Saint Domingue, as Haiti was then known, became France’s richest international colony, chiefly due to its production of sugar, coffee, indigo, and cotton produced by an enslaved labor force. After the French Revolution broke out in 1789 there were five different sets of interest groups in the colony. There were white planters – that possessed the plantations and also the slaves – along with also petit blancs, that were sailors, and educators. More than a few of those also possessed several slaves. Collectively they numbered 40,000 of their colony’s people. A number of the whites on Saint Domingue started to support an independence movement which commenced when France imposed extreme tariffs to the item imported into the colony. The planters were extremely disenchanted with France mainly due to the fact they’ve been prohibited to trade with any other nation. What’s more, the white populace of Saint Dominique did not have any representation in France. Despite their calls for liberty, both the planters along with petit blancs stayed devoted towards the association of slavery.

The three remaining groups had been of African descent: those who were liberated, people who were slaves, along with people who’d run away. There were approximately 30,000 free black people in 1789. Half of them ended up mulatto and they certainly were wealthier than the petit blancs. The slave population was near to 500,000. The runaway slaves were termed maroons; they’d retreated deep into the hills of Saint Domingue and dwelt subsistence farming. Haiti had a history on slave rebellions; the slaves were never ready to submit to their status and with their potency in numbers (10 to 1 ) colonial planters and officials did all that possible to restrain them. Despite the cruelty of all Saint Domingue slavery, there were slave rebellions earlier 1791. One plot included the poisoning of masters.

Haiti flag pennants

Inspired by activities in France, a number of Haitian-born revolutionary movements appeared simultaneously. They used as their inspiration the French Revolution’s “Declaration of the Rights of Man.” The General Assembly at Paris reacted by enacting laws that gave that the numerous colonies some autonomy at the local grade. The law, that called “all of the local proprietors…to be active citizens, “were each equally ambiguous and revolutionary. It was interpreted in Saint Domingue as applying just to the planter class and thus excluded petit blancs from the government. Yet it enabled free citizens of color that were proprietors to engage. The law, promulgated in Paris to maintain Saint Domingue in the colonial empire, instead produced a three-sided civil war between the planters, free blacks, and the petit blancs. Yet, these three groups would be contested from the enslaved black majority that was also inspired and motivated by events from France.

Led by former slave Toussaint L’Ouverture, the enslaved would act first, fighting against the planters on August 21, 1791. By 1792 they controlled a third of this island. Even though reinforcements in France, the region of the colony maintained with the rebels climbed as did the violence on either side. Before the fighting stopped 100,000 of those 500,000 blacks and 24,000 of those 40,000 whites were killed. Nonetheless, the former slaves were able to fend off the French forces and also the British who came in 1793 to conquer the colony, and who withdrew in 1798 following a series of defeats by L’Ouverture powers. From 1801 l’Overture expanded the revolution outside Haiti, conquering the neighboring Spanish colony of Santo Domingo (present-day Dominican Republic). He abolished slavery from the Spanish-speaking colony and also announced himself governor general for a lifetime within the whole island of Hispaniola.

At the time the Haitian Revolution had outlasted the French Revolution that has been its own inspiration. Napoleon Bonaparte, today the ruler of France, sent General Charles Leclerc, his brother-in-law, also 43,000 French troops to arrest L’Ouverture and reestablish both French rule and slavery. L’Ouverture was captured and sent to France where he died in jail in 1803. Jean-Jacques Dessalines, among l’Ouverture’s generals and himself a former slave, directed the revolutionaries in the Battle of Vertieres on November 18, 1803, in which the French forces have been defeated.

On January 1, 1804, Dessalines declared that the country independent and renamed it Haiti. France became the very first state to recognize its independence. Haiti thus appeared as the very first black republic in the world, and also the second nation from the western hemisphere (following the United States) to win its independence from a European power.

Haitian Declaration of Independence: When did Haiti get its independence?

On 1 January 1804, Dessalines, the new leader under the dictatorial 1801 Treaty,announced Haiti a country from the title of the Haitian people.

The Haitian Declaration of Independence was declared on 1 January 1804 from the port town of Gonaïves by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, signaling the end of the 13-year long Haitian Revolution. The declaration marked Haiti’s becoming the first independent state of Latin America and the second in the Americas after the United States of America.

Haitian Independence – Haiti Independence: FAQs

Haiti became independent on January 1, 1804, and on this day it obtained a new name also. Formerly called Saint-Domingue, the land was France’s most flourishing colony, its own plantation economy determined by a barbarous system of slave labor. Adhering to an insurrection that climbed to a full-scale revolution, both Haitian slaves along with gens de couleur libre-free people of colour-defeated the French army and announced themselves a republic.

Here are some Haitian Independence FAQs to letyou know how Haiti won independence, why Haiti wanted independence, and how Haiti defeated the French.

How did Haiti win its independence from France?

Haitian Revolution, a series of battles between 1791 and 1804 between the Haitian slaves, colonists, both the armies of the British and the French colonizers and Explored by different parties. black republic finally succeeded Throughout the battle, the Haitian individuals finally gained independence from France and thus became the first nation to be founded by former slaves.

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When did Haiti get its independence?

On January 1, 1804, Haiti made history by being the first Black Country to gain its independence – which is today celebrated as Haitian Independence Day.

Why did Haiti want independence?

  • After the French had been in charge they had a regulation stated they were the only ones who could eat soup since they were at the top class. The French had a custom that they can eat soup on New Year’s Day. Blacks were not permitted!
  • People did not like to get treated like slaves and to be informed exactly what they could and could not do.
  • The island’s inhabitants, made to mine for gold, was ruined by European diseases and brutal working conditions.
  • Haitian culture has been profoundly fragmented by skin color, type, and sex. The affranchis, the majority of these mulattoes, were occasionally slave owners and aspired into the economic and societal levels of the Europeans. They feared and dreaded the slave majority but were generally discriminated against from the white colonists, who had been merchants, landowners, overseers, craftsmen, and so on.
  • The aspirations of this affranchis turned into a significant element in Haiti’s struggle for independence. A massive region of the slave population was African-born, by a number of West African peoples. The huge majority worked in the fields; many others were family servants, boilermen (in the sugar plantations ), and sometimes even slave drivers.
  • Slaves suffered long, backbreaking workdays and frequently died from infections, tropical diseases, and injuries. Malnutrition and starvation too have been common. Some slaves were able to escape to the mountainous interior, in which they had been known as Maroons and battled guerrilla conflicts against the colonial militia.

How did Haiti defeat the French?

Jean-Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe headed a black army against the French in 1802, after evidence that Napoleon planned to reestablish slavery in Saint-Domingue because he’d done at other early French possessions. They conquered the French commander along with also a massive portion of his army, and in November 1803 the Viscount de Rochambeau surrendered the remnant of this expedition. The French withdrew from Haiti, however, claimed an existence in the eastern area of the island until 1809.

How much did Haiti pay France for independence?

Following the slaves declared themselves liberated and the country independent in 1804, France, together with the complicity of its allies, asked the newly formed nation to pay the French authorities and French slaveholders the modern equivalent of US $21 billion dollars for the “theft” of their slaves’ lives and the land they had turned into a profitable sugar and coffee-producing plantations. This independence debt has been funded by French banks as well as the American Citibank, and paid off 143 decades after, in 1947.

Was Haiti the first to gain independence?

On January 1, 1804, the island formally gained its own independence. It had been renamed Haiti, also is known as the second oldest independent state in the Western Hemisphere (after the United States).

What started the Haitian Revolution – What was the cause of the Haitian revolution?

The Haitian Revolution was the effect of a long struggle on the part of the slaves from the French colony of St. Domingue but was also motivated from the free Mulattoes who’d faced the trials of being denoted as semi-citizens. This revolt wasn’t unique, since there were many rebellions of its type against the establishment of plantation slavery in the Caribbean, however the Haitian Revolution the strongest and the most successful. This was a terrific deal to do with the sway of the French Revolution as it helped to inspire events in Haiti. The Haitian Revolution goes on to serve as a model for those affected by slavery throughout the world.

You will find three different classes in St. Domingue. There were the Whites, who were in control, then there were also the free Mulattoes, that straddled a tenuous place in Haitian society. While they had a level of liberty, they had been repressed by the traditional White power structure which realized them just because being people of color. Then came the slaves that, in Haiti suffered under a number of the most bizarre treatment located in the Caribbean. Slaves in Haiti were legitimately regarded as the property of the general public and with minimal choice, given obedience. The master supplied for the barest essentials of life for his slave “while he secures himself from insult or injury via an appeal to regulations ”

The conditions in Haiti now were ripe to get a Revolution and the one thing missing was that the suitable actions, which will shortly arrive in the shape of the French Revolution and also a guy called Toussaint, who following a short delay, sprang into the act and headed among the very prosperous insurgencies ever!

Toussaint L’Ouverture Haitian Revolution – Who is Toussaint Louverture and what did he do for Haiti’s independence?

Toussaint was the son of an educated servant who’d go on to direct the most important and powerful slave rebellion and history, partially inspired by the developments that happened simultaneously in France. Although initially he was uncommitted into the revolutionary target, events from France would soon inspire him to do it.

As a pioneer, Toussaint was nothing less than inspirational, so taking the countless slaves and free Mulattoes who were revolting. Having discovered local leaders of this rebellion to be inept, he organized his own military, inspiring countless to join him and displayed an amazing talent for leading militaristic approaches and strategies that could allow him to make the slave insurgency at St. Domingue among the most powerful ever.

How did Haiti become independent?

Haiti Independence Day Patriotic Design. Balloons in Haitian National Colors

To summarize, the situation at Haiti before the French Revolution ended up prime to get an insurrection to occur. Missing a clear and defined political authority, the White colonists have been powerless to comprise satisfactorily the rebellion they were pushing upon themselves for ages. Their contemptible treatment of Negroes and Mulattoes at Haiti sped-up the development of the cause of the abolition of slavery in Haiti.

The excesses of this contemptible treatment would be that actually the most reasons the Haitian Revolution was successful: the treatment of slaves, as well as Mulattoes in Haiti, was really so awful that it forced the absolute most violent and in the end, probably the very prosperous slave insurrection in history. The French Revolution gave the required spark to its revolution in Haiti to occur: it had been the inspiration the cause for the abolition of slavery in Haiti had to actualize its targets.

What was Haiti called before independence?

Haiti’s first name was “Ayiti, Quisqueya, Bohio.” It was a name given by the first people who dwelt there. Following Christopher Columbus found the Isle in 1492, he called it “Hispaniola,” meaning “Little Spain,” in honor of the Spanish crown. The title changed to”Haiti” meaning mountainous land. It was a name supplied by the French settlers from the western place.

Haiti after independence: How is Haiti today?

The first 20th century at Haiti was mostly marked with this political instability when in 1915, the USA commissionedMarines to occupy the nation and safeguard American business interests there. However, because this job was resented by a lot of Haitians, the U.S. Marines were eventually withdrawn in 1934.

Through the mid to late 1900s, Haiti saw quite a little political increase, using a number of different presidents taking control for a variety of periods of time. It wasn’t till 2006 when René Prévalwas chosen the president, that some semblance of stability and economic development was going to be attained. But, in January of 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake hit two miles west of Port-au-Prince, ruining the majority of the capital. The earthquake took the lives of an estimated 217,000 individuals and left more than two million Haitians with no shelter.

In the almost seven years since Haiti has functioned reconstruct what was missing and hasn’t given up hope for the future. They continue to appear ahead to additional growth and achievement. Haiti has become devoted to enabling Haitians residing in domestic servitude to conquer poverty and exploitation to attain economic security.

Haitian Independence Day Celebrations: How is Independence Day celebrated in Haiti?

On Jan. 1, 1804, that Haiti officially announced independence from France, becoming the first free nation from the Caribbean liberated and regulated by its former allies. That revolutionary spirit still remains a source of national pride and mega celebration!

Haiti’s Independence Day happens on New Year’s Day, the date in 1804 which General Jean-Jacques Dessalines directed his forces against the colonial army of Napoleon, ending decades of a determined revolutionary movement. Upon reaching its liberation from the French, Haiti became the first independent republic made from the self-determination of black individuals and the very first state in the Western Hemisphere to abolish slavery entirely.

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On Haiti Independence Day, Haitians celebrate their nation’s heritage and imagine a brighter future for everybody. Flower sand lighting decorate their houses, and traditional food fills their tables. It is stated that Marie-Claire Heureuse Felicite, Dessalines’ spouse, announced that on this particular day no Haitian should be denied a bowl of joumou soup. Other independence special food comprises ham served with fruit, stewed turkey, black rice, fried plantains, yucca, and cassava – accompanied by a few RhumBarbancourt, the world’s greatest manufacturers of rum, produced directly in Haiti’s capital, Port-au-Prince.

On Haiti Independence Day, people in communities across the nation break into song, dress into stunning outfits, dancing up a storm and generally live it up. Throughout Carnival, its citizens flock into its roads within a lush display of colored costume and joyous music. About Haiti Independence Day, people honor their African heritage in music, dancing, and spirit.

Haitian Independence Day celebration would be incomplete without a homemade feast notably the Haitian Soup joumou. After the French had been in control, they had a regulation stated they were the only ones who might eat soup since they had been at the top class. The French had a habit of consuming soup on New Year’s Day. Blacks were not permitted. Finally, when Haiti proclaimed its liberty, all Haitians began to consume soup. It ended up being a means to show that everybody was equal. Ever since that time, Haitians maintain this custom of eating soup on their Independence Day. The soup turned into a sign that the French were no more in control. Cooking and drinking the soup on New Year’s Day is a means to celebrate independence – Soup joumou is everything. For Haitians, it actually is their freedom soup!

On Haiti Independence Day, the country also pays tribute to its early leaders who fought for Haiti’s liberty. Special prayers are also performed for peace, progress, and stability in the region.

Happy Haitian Independence Day!

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